CPU usage of version 6.0.0

Thank you for the update.
In the screenshots above for 6.0.0 the perf top commands are for CPU 0 and 1.
Judging by the htop output (pegged CPUs are 3 and 15 in htop) we actually need
perf top -C 2 -g -K
perf top -C 14 -g -K on the root@kvm~ host (not Suricata VM guest) to get an idea of what the problem might be.
Can you please share that for 6.0.0 ?

Thank you

Oh sorry. With 6.0.0 running, I checked the information of the KVM Host again. In all figures, the top terminal is CPU #2 (htop #3) and the bottom is #14 (htop #15).

The main loops in the flow manager and recycler threads switched from a pthread condition wait to a simpler usleep loop. Wonder if that is what works poorly with kvm.

Even in kvm of fedora33, only 6.0.x versions, including 6.0.1, increased CPU usage. If so, has something changed in pthread condition from 6.0.0?

Yes, in 6 flow manager loops switched from pthread conditions to usleep. The pthread conditions gave very unreliable results in my tests.

Can you explain specifically what it means to be unreliable results?

Victor you may on to something. please see https://redmine.openinfosecfoundation.org/issues/4096 for the reply on 15/12/2020, changing usleep values have a significant impact on the issue

Since the host is KVM and issue is related to usleep(), can we check if tweaking the halt_poll_ns kvm module parameter in the host solves the problem

Check current default value:
root@virtual-machine:~$ cat /sys/module/kvm/parameters/halt_poll_ns

Temporary change for testing

echo 10000 > /sys/module/kvm/parameters/halt_poll_ns

Permanent changes by modifications to kvm.conf
[root@localhost ~]# cat /etc/modprobe.d/kvm.conf
# Setting modprobe kvm_intel/kvm_amd nested = 1
# only enables Nested Virtualization until the next reboot or
# module reload. Uncomment the option applicable
# to your system below to enable the feature permanently.
# User changes in this file are preserved across upgrades.
# For Intel
#options kvm_intel nested=1
# For AMD
#options kvm_amd nested=1
options kvm halt_poll_ns=10000

Bug #1724614 “[KVM] Lower the default for halt_poll_ns to 200000…” : Zesty (17.04) : Bugs : linux package : Ubuntu (launchpad.net)
The KVM halt polling system — The Linux Kernel documentation
KVM settings - IBM Documentation

Hi, I set it to 10000,and even went down to 0, but no noticable change.
This is on a proxmox host (kvm) with OPNsense VM (suricata 6.0.3)
Comparing suricata 5.0.7 to 6.0.3, the cpu load almost doubled. But those measurements obviously fluctuate.

While monitoring (zabbix via snmp) this VM I found a rather steady value of context switches.
5.0.7: ~800 sw/s
6.0.3: ~12000sw/s
That’s factor 15.

To be sure I checked in the vm with top and saw indeed VCSW: ~12000

Not sure if this is going to be helpful. Can you please try the tweaks (clock policy) suggested at https://www.reddit.com/r/VFIO/comments/80p1q7/high_kvmqemu_cpu_utilization_when_windows_10/

Proxmox uses qemu/kvm, but doesn´t use libvirt. Also this setting was for fix for a windows system, not linux/freebsd.
Nevertheless I’m curious if your advice has any effect.
In your mentioned reddit post I saw a setting for HPET, which seems to be the main change.
Proxmox by default boots a vm with hpet enabled, also listed in dmesg inside the vm. So just to see if disabling it would have any effect, I booted it with arguments -no-hpet.
This made total cpu usage almost the same as without it, but now it uses more cpu system time, less cpu user time.

The reason why I mentioned the context switching statistics is because of the large increase. And normally extra context switching shows higher cpu load. The former message was measured from my production vm. In the mean time I set up a test vm whith no load (no network clients) and there the difference is even greater.

5.0.7: ~400 sw/s
6.0.3: ~12000sw/s
That’s factor 30.
Also when I look at the suricata threads in top:

55082 root        5734      2      0      0      0      0   0.00% suricata{FM#01}
55082 root        5775      1      0      0      0      0   0.00% suricata{FR#01}
55082 root         184      0      0      0      0      0   0.00% suricata{suricata}
55082 root          21      0      0      0      0      0   0.00% suricata{W#01-vtnet2^}
55082 root          20      0      0      0      0      0   0.00% suricata{W#01-vtnet2}
55082 root          19      0      0      0      0      0   0.00% suricata{W#01-vtnet1^}
55082 root          19      0      0      0      0      0   0.00% suricata{W#01-vtnet1}
55082 root           1      0      0      0      0      0   0.00% suricata{CW}
55082 root           0      0      0      0      0      0   0.00% suricata{CS}

That looks like a direct consequense of using usleep.
Quote from Bug #4421: flow manager: using too much CPU during idle - Suricata - Open Information Security Foundation

the new usleep based loops in the flow manager and recycler consume too much CPU time. In busy systems this has been show to be more efficient than the old pthread_condtimed logic, but in lower end systems the usleep approach has too much overhead.

Perhaps @vjulien could chime in and give some directions what to test and review these observations.

Instead of the opnsense vm I set up an ubuntu 20.04.3 vm with install from ppa to make monitoring and troubleshooting easier. Same host, same specs for vm.
Comparable results, as others earlier mentioned in this thread.
Cpu usage inside the vm is not that significant with suricata 6.0.3. Host cpu usage increase for this vm is significant.

To see if context switching is a possible cause for affecting kvm so much:
I shut down suricata in this vm and tried to simulate a similar rate of context switching with stress-ng:

stress-ng --cyclic 1 --cyclic-method usleep 

I can see comparable results on the host.
So it seems that somehow the usleep loop is causing excessive context switching which causes extra cpu load on the host when running KVM. The real impact depends on the host hardware, but I already saw several posts on the proxmox forum (many users run opnsense with suricata in a vm) strugling if they should disable suricata.

Would it be possible to use pthread for virtual machines and the usleep loop for physical machines?
That would also avoid the struggle from this tracking bug Bug #4379: flow manager: using too much CPU during idle - Suricata - Open Information Security Foundation

Perhaps we can make the usleep value configurable. On lower end systems there is no need to wake up frequently. Or optionally bring back the old behavior. Overall I’m not a great fan these kinds of options.

Same issue on Proxmox KVM with pfSense. See: https://forum.netgate.com/topic/166657/suricata-increase-in-cpu-use-after-upgrade-to-v6

I’m currently looking at this code, mostly for other reasons, to adjust timings. Is there a minimum usleep value that works well in all these scenarios?

I think the value of v5 was correct. I did not have any issues with v5.

v5 uses a very different logic, w/o usleep. It has other issues, which is why it was updated.

I really do not know if a lower usleep will help. Would be nice if we can test that somehow.
As @janssensm stated before; is it possible to let Suricata use pthread -or- usleep?

the question I’m trying to get an answer for is: has anyone experimented with a higher usleep value? I don’t know the usleep behavior in these scenarios with vms, low end hw, etc.

First, thank you for still looking into this.
That was a thought that was already on my to do list and one of the reasons to set up my test vm with ubuntu instead of opnsense.
This will probably take some time to test different settings.
Am I right that the only way to test different usleep values is to compile from source with changed values as in this commit?

Indeed, this exact commit shows how: Next/60x/20210215/v2 by victorjulien · Pull Request #5860 · OISF/suricata · GitHub